No meta-analyses could be performed as no raw data could be extracted from one placebo - controlled trial and three trials used different comparators. One trial reported significant short-term benefits of oral steroids versus placebo : 48% more participants reported success ( RR = 2 (95% CI to , NNT =2); overall improvement in pain (95% CI to ) on a 0 to 10 point scale; total shoulder abduction increased by degrees (95% CI to ); Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score improved by (95% CI to ) on a 0 to 100 point scale. But benefits were not maintained at 6 weeks. A second trial reported no significant differences between oral steroid and placebo in pain or range of movement but it suggested improvement occurred earlier in the steroid treated group. A third trial reported that oral steroids provided a more rapid initial improvement in pain compared to no treatment but negligible differences by five months. There were minimal adverse effects reported.
Heavy consumption of the essential amino acid lysine (as indicated in the treatment of cold sores) has allegedly shown false positives in some and was cited by American shotputter C. J. Hunter as the reason for his positive test, though in 2004 he admitted to a federal grand jury that he had injected nandrolone.  A possible cause of incorrect urine test results is the presence of metabolites from other AAS, though modern urinalysis can usually determine the exact AAS used by analyzing the ratio of the two remaining nandrolone metabolites. As a result of the numerous overturned verdicts, the testing procedure was reviewed by UK Sport . On October 5, 2007, three-time Olympic gold medalist for track and field Marion Jones admitted to use of the drug, and was sentenced to six months in jail for lying to a federal grand jury in 2000.