Non steroidal oral contraceptives

The use of topical NSAIDs gels or creams to treat pain has been reported to cause a photocontact dermatitis . Most commonly this has occurred with ketoprofen gel with an incidence of -/1000. Often the reaction appears after stopping the application when the skin is next exposed to sunlight. Therefore it is usually reported in summer. The reaction commonly extends beyond the area where the gel had been applied. The reaction can be severe, requiring hospital admission in some cases. Testing has shown this to be a photoallergic contact dermatitis , crossreacting with other NSAIDs including tiaprofenic acid, fenofibrate, oxybenzone and benzophenone. Bufexamac has also been reported to cause contact dermatitis .

NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory (reduce inflammation), analgesic (relieve pain) and antipyretic (lower temperature) effects. Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation. Most NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes, although a few are available that mainly inhibit COX-2. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of COX-2, and their unwanted side effects are largely due to inhibition of COX-1.

When and how much to take
NSAIDs should ideally be taken with some food, or at least with milk or yoghurt to avoid irritation of the gastric mucosa (. the inner lining of the stomach). It is important not to exceed the recommended dose to avoid possible serious side-effects. There is also no benefit in taking more than a certain dose, since these drugs have a ceiling effect. This means that above a certain dose, taking even more of this medication will not yield any extra beneficial effects, but will considerably increase the risk for side-effects.

In rodents, estrogens (which are locally aromatized from androgens in the brain) play an important role in psychosexual differentiation, for example, by masculinizing territorial behavior; [56] the same is not true in humans. [57] In humans, the masculinizing effects of prenatal androgens on behavior (and other tissues, with the possible exception of effects on bone) appear to act exclusively through the androgen receptor. [58] Consequently, the utility of rodent models for studying human psychosexual differentiation has been questioned. [59]

Non steroidal oral contraceptives

non steroidal oral contraceptives

In rodents, estrogens (which are locally aromatized from androgens in the brain) play an important role in psychosexual differentiation, for example, by masculinizing territorial behavior; [56] the same is not true in humans. [57] In humans, the masculinizing effects of prenatal androgens on behavior (and other tissues, with the possible exception of effects on bone) appear to act exclusively through the androgen receptor. [58] Consequently, the utility of rodent models for studying human psychosexual differentiation has been questioned. [59]

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