I have a lot of respect for Dr. Peter Lio — at least he is trying to learn about and raising awareness about TSW — but this article is wrong on a couple fronts, already pointed out in other comments. This article puts the blame on patients for misuse of topical steroids, but the reality is that many doctors (the majority it seems) either don’t know about or don’t believe TSW is real, and they ignore the risks of steroids noted in the drug inserts. Many patients end up with TSW after relying on their doctors’ guidance. We did.
In fact, the anatomical studies have demonstrated that after the radicular medullary arteries enter the neuroforamen in the anterior aspect of exiting nerve root and dorsal root ganglion, they often travel a distance superiorly and laterally in the lateral epidural space to join the anterior spinal artery supplying the anterior two thirds of the spinal cord. Additionally, in about 63% of cases of cadaver studies, there is a posterior branch of the radicular medullary artery going to the dorsal aspect of the cauda equina. It is conceivable that the epidural needle in the interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injection will very likely encounter the radicular medullar artery in the lateral aspect of the epidural space or midline posterior epidural space.