Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle starts with the combination of acetyl-CoA (2C) and oxaloactate (4C) to generate citrate (6C). Through a series of eight reactions, two CO2 molecules are released, and oxaloacetate is regenerated. The citric acid cycle does not directly generate much energy. Each turn of the cycle generates one ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation and a GTP intermediate, for a total of two pyruvates per glucose molecule. The value of the citric acid cycle is its ability to generate high-energy electrons that are carried by NADH and FADH2. For each molecule of acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle, three NADH and one FADH2 are produced by two to account for the fact that the cycle turns twice per molecule of glucose. These enzymes then transport the electrons to the electron transport chain on the inner mitochondrial membrane, where more ATP is produced via oxidative phosphorylation. At the end of the citric acid cycle, oxaloacetate is regenerated in anticipation of the next round.
Glycolysis Video: https:///watch?v=hDq1rhUkV-g
∑ - In aerobic cell respiration pyruvate is decarboxylated and oxidized, and converted into acetyl compound and attached to coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A in the link reaction.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion. Pyruvate is oxidized by the by the removal of pairs of hydrogen atoms (with their electrons), which are passed on the NAD+ and FAD