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LDL-P (LDL Particles) test measures the number of LDL cholesterol particles in the blood rather than the concentration of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) measured by most current tests. The results of LDL-P test should be compared with the results of LDL-C test; when the results do not match (high LDL-P/normal LDL-C or normal LDL-P/high LDL-C), then, according to some authors, the LDL-P test results are considered a better predictor of the risk of cardiovascular disease (heart attack and stroke) than LDL-C results  [29,37] . According to other authors, LDL-P test does not give better information about the coronary heart disease risk than total/HDL cholesterol ratio [65] .

Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids, [43] along with the glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelins. The steroids , all derived from the same fused four-ring core structure, have different biological roles as hormones and signaling molecules . The eighteen-carbon (C18) steroids include the estrogen family whereas the C19 steroids comprise the androgens such as testosterone and androsterone . The C21 subclass includes the progestogens as well as the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids . [44] The secosteroids , comprising various forms of vitamin D , are characterized by cleavage of the B ring of the core structure. [45] Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their conjugates, [46] which in mammals are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and are synthesized in the liver. The plant equivalents are the phytosterols , such as β-sitosterol , stigmasterol , and brassicasterol ; the latter compound is also used as a biomarker for algal growth. [47] The predominant sterol in fungal cell membranes is ergosterol . [48]

Some organizations [ clarification needed ] promote the use of injected phosphatidylcholine, otherwise known as injection lipolysis , claiming the procedure can break down fat cells, and thus serve as an alternative to liposuction . While the procedure cites early experiments that showed lipolysis in cases of fat emboli, [13] no peer-reviewed studies have shown any amount of lipolysis even remotely comparable to liposuction. [14] [15] Injection of phosphatidyl choline in small numbers of patients has been reported to reduce or completely resolve a majority of lipomas , although some actually increased in size. There were side-effects, which resolved without complication. Long-term studies are deemed necessary to judge efficacy. [16] [17] Dr. Patrick Treacy has used phosphatidylcholine and deoxcholate successfully in the treatment of infraorbital fat pads. [18]

Examples steroids lipids

examples steroids lipids

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