Corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex

Use the combination of metformin; sitagliptin with caution in geriatric patients. Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney and the risk of adverse reactions (including lactic acidosis) is greater in patients with reduced renal function. Because aging is associated with renal function decline, care should be taken with dose selection and titration. Sitagliptin dosing is recommended to be decreased in patients with a CrCl less than 50 mL/min. Obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at least annually in all patients taking metformin; sitagliptin. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment such as geriatric patients, renal function should be assessed more frequently. Unless estimated renal function via the eGFR is determined to not be reduced, do not use metformin in geriatric patients 80 years of age and older. Generally, geriatric or debilitated patients should not be titrated up to maximum metformin dosages. Older, debilitated, or malnourished patients are also particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents; monitor blood glucose frequently. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, the use of antidiabetic medications should include monitoring (., periodic blood glucose) for effectiveness based on desired goals for that individual and to identify complications of treatment such as hypoglycemia or impaired renal function. Metformin has been associated with lactic acidosis, which is more likely to occur under the following conditions: serum creatinine of mg/dL or higher in males or mg/dL or higher in females, abnormal creatinine clearance from any cause, age of 80 years or older unless measurement of creatinine clearance verifies normal renal function, radiologic studies in which intravascular iodinated contrast materials are given, congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, or acute/chronic metabolic acidosis with or without coma (including diabetic ketoacidosis).

Women with very frequent and severe attacks are candidates for preventive therapy. For sufferers taking preventive medications who experience migraine attacks that break through the preventive therapy perimenstrually, the dose can be raised prior to menstruation. For sufferers not taking preventive medication, or for those with true menstrual migraine, short-term prophylaxis taken perimenstrually can be effective. Agents that have been used effectively perimenstrually for short-term prophylaxis include: naproxen sodium (or another NSAID) 550 mg twice a day; a triptan, such as frovatriptan mg twice on the first day and then mg daily/ naratriptan 1 mg twice a day/ sumatriptan 25 mg twice a day/ or, methylergonovine mg twice a day; DHE either via nasal spray or injection 1 mg twice a day; and magnesium, equivalent to 500 mg twice a day.

Oxygen therapy is frequently provided along with pharmacological interventions to treat underlying hypoxemia in COPD patients. By reducing hypoxia in the alveoli, pulmonary vasoconstriction is reduced. Reducing pulmonary hypertension lowers right heart afterload, and improves right heart systolic function. Oxygen also reduces hypoxemia in the blood, which reduces the risk of developing polycythemia. However, oxygen therapy has only been shown to reduce mortality in those with severe hypoxemia (PaO2 < 55mmHg); otherwise there is no mortality benefit.

Corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex

corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex


corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortexcorticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortexcorticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortexcorticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortexcorticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex