Something like that may be happening with studies that don’t need doctors, and each study taken alone may be conducted legitimately. For example, apparently there have been quite a few studies done on various effects of stevia (non-patentable) or aspartame (patented). One possible bad effect of stevia gets a study looking for evidence of Bad Effect X. One alleged bad effect of aspartame is studied, looking for evidence that clears aspartame of Bad Effect Y. (See also “data dredging”.) It is just a question of funding a study whose honest result will be useful to the source of the funding.
Awareness and educational efforts are working to help prevent anabolic steroid abuse in schools and communities. The Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS) and the Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) programs, funded by the NIDA, and supported by the Oregon Health & Science University programs is teaching athletes that they do not need steroids to build powerful muscles and improve athletic performance. These programs provide weight-training and nutrition alternatives, increase healthy behaviors, less likelihood to try steroids, and less likelihood to engage in other dangerous behaviors such as drinking and driving, use of marijuana and alcohol , and and improved body image. Bother Congress and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration endorsed these model prevention programs. 4